Papa Doc? Idi Amin?
No, this is Brutus Jones, sometime Pullman porter, sometime killer of an opponent in a crap game, who now, in some distant venue of palm trees, mountains, and jungle dark, brooding jungle has set up rule as a much-feared royal dictator, complete with palace, gaudy throne, and a toady, seedy Englishman named Smithers as his treacherous aide-de-camp.
On November 1, 1920, a drama called The Emperor Jones opened in a Provincetown Players production at New York Citys Neighborhood Playhouse. The star was a black actor named Charles S. Gilpin, the playwright was 32-year-old Eugene ONeill. The event is often looked upon as the birth of serious American theater
Five years later The Emperor Jones had a brief (28 performances) revival at a playhouse on 52nd Street, this time with none other than proud, powerful Paul Robeson as the tinhorn Emperor, and when Hollywood got around to the movie version eight years later, in 1933, the star was once again Paul Robeson (with Dudley Digges as Smithers).
Seventy-one years after that i.e., a few months ago 34-year-old Arthur Adair, an actor and director who has often worked as one or the other at Ellen Stewarts La MaMa Experimental Theater Club on East 4th Street, walked into the Ottendorfer Branch of Public Library on Second Avenue, looking at random for a video to watch that night. He saw one marked Emperor Jones a film and play he knew little or nothing about and grabbed it.
I still had it in my hand when I walked down to La MaMa, Adair said the other day, and Ellen said: Whats that?
Did Ellen know the play?
Im not quite sure. Ellen works in mysterious ways. Youre never sure what she knows and doesnt know. Anyway, Ellen looked at it and said: Baby, I think you should watch that tonight. So I did.
The result is what is billed as A Re-Envisioning of the Legend of The Emperor Jones, directed by Arthur Adair, performed by Xander Gaines (Jones), Brian P. Glover (Smithers), and Sheila Dabney (everything else), February 2-12 at La MaMa Annex, 66 East 4th Street.
Now for the but
What the writer/playgoer you are here reading has never been able to figure out, from the day he first read The Emperor Jones, is just where this play sits vis-a-vis the borderline between racist stereotyping and theatrical pattern-smashing. Note the small n of Negro in the excerpt at the head of this article from ONeills vivid stage directions. And thats the least of the caricaturing and condescension toward this black man in his gold braid.
One thinks of Idi Amin & Co., and Joseph Conrad, and also of the ferocious movie The Dogs of War in which Christopher Walken as a soldier of fortune wipes out just such a black tyrant along with various whites (Smithers types, but richer) who hired Walken to do it.
I mean, how did Paul Robeson, that unpurchasable, fearless black man who one day would stand up to HUAC, the State Department, the president, and everybody else, see fit to put himself into the body and eventual Steppin Fetchit words Oh Lawd, Lawd! Oh Lawd, Lawd! of the Pullman porter who got too big for himself and ends up fleeing in terror through a jungle infested with Little Formless Fears to the ever louder pounding of heartbeat tom-toms.
It also, incidentally, all but wrecked Gilpin, who got more and more infuriated as he kept doing revivals of it.
Arthur Adair agrees with ones doubts, or questions, in a manner of speaking.
When I saw the movie, he says, I didnt understand it at all. Couldnt figure out if the Emperor was a good character or a bad character. And he still cant. Its a very ambiguous play.
The movie he considers it a pretty bad movie puts in lots of the back story (Pullman porter, crap game) thats only in the play as exposition, but leaves out two of Joness crucial race-memories, a slave ship and a slave auction. And they dont unlike the play use the word nigger at all.
What Adair did and does like about the 1933 film is the drumming that gets louder and louder and louder. At La MaMa that probably will be me.
Queens-born, Brooklyn College-educated Adair, product of a hard-working white blue-collar family, has always been deeply affected by the old Greeks Every time Id say I dont want to be in theater any more, an Antigone or an Oedipus would come along and sees a connection, or a parallel, between Brutus Jones and Oedipus. Its why he wanted to tackle Emperor Jones at La MaMa. ONeill, of course, was deeply indebted to those same old Greeks.
When Oedipus and Brutus Jones confront their own actions, they see they have to take responsibility for those actions, and in the process they find out about themselves. Oedipus is not proud of what hes done and Jones is not proud of what hes done.
Tall, black-bearded, straw-top thatched Arthur Adair, who lives in Brooklyn with his girlfriend Mickie Spencer an interior designer and metal worker has staged his own transliteration of Chekhovs The Three Sisters and last year at La MaMa appeared as Jesus, opposite Brian Glover as Pilate, in Dario DAmbrosis ultra-controversial The Pathological Passion of the Christ.
Which is soon to be a motion picture, shot all over this town. The only emperors in it at long distance are Roman.